HLTH 252 TEST 1

Question 1 

  1. Which of the following statements defines the term      “antecedents”?

 

They are characteristics that   predict later initiation of drug use.

 

They are variables that are   statistically related to some other variables, such as drug use.

 

They are substances that cause one   to escalate to more deviant forms of drug use.

 

They are those forms of drug use   that are not considered either normal or acceptable by the society at large.

2 points

Question 2 

  1. ________ generally refers to the use of prescribed      drugs in greater amounts than, or for purposes other than, those      prescribed by a physician or dentist.

 

Drug abuse

 

Drug dependence

 

Deviant drug use

 

Drug misuse

2 points

Question 3 

  1. According to results from the National Survey on Drug      Use and Health, which of these ethnic groups reports the highest rate of      use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana?

 

White

 

African American

 

Hispanic

 

Asian

2 points

Question 4 

  1. One of the most important risk factors for drug use is:

 

having friends who use marijuana   or other substances.

 

being heavily involved in   extracurricular activities.

 

having lots of money.

 

believing that your parents are a   source of social support.

2 points

Question 5 

  1. Which of the following is a limitation of the survey      questionnaire studies on drug use among adolescents and young adults?

 

The sample sizes used for research   studies are too small.

 

This technique can be used only on   students who are in classrooms.

 

The researchers who conduct these   studies tend to be biased.

 

The results do not reflect trends   in drug use over time due to fluctuating tendencies to overreport or   underreport drug use.

2 points

Question 6 

  1. Michelle is an engineering graduate. She tried cocaine      at a friend’s party, and it gave her an altered state of consciousness.      She gradually became a regular user of the substance. With every use, she      increased the chance of using the substance again. Identify this process      of repeated use.

 

Drug misuse

 

Correlation

 

Deviant drug use

 

Reinforcement
2 points

Question 7 

  1. Drugs have played a significant role in human society:

 

for about the past 100 years.

 

only since the 1960s.

 

for thousands of years.

 

only in Europe and North America.

2 points

Question 8 

  1. One very consistent finding is that students who report      ________ are less likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, or use any      type of illicit drug than other students.

 

having high self-esteem

 

being well-off financially

 

having more involvement with   religion

 

having lots of friends

2 points

Question 9 

  1. One of the general principles of psychoactive drug use      is that:

 

all psychoactive drugs should be   banned.

 

most people are unable to control their   own drug use.

 

every drug has an opposite drug   that can counteract it.

 

drugs, per se, are not good or   bad.

2 points

Question 10 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of the      relationships between substance use and various indicators of individual      differences in personality variables?

 

Large-scale survey studies of   substance use in the general population have strong correlations with most   traditional personality traits.

 

Correlational studies of long-term   substance use among young adults have shown a strong link between poor   academic performances and substance use.

 

Various ways of measuring a factor   called impulsivity can be correlated with rates of substance use in the   general population.

 

Personality factors play a big   role in whether someone decides to try alcohol or marijuana but a small role   in whether that use develops into a serious problem.

2 points

Question 11 

  1. About how many arrests are made in the U.S. each year      for drug-law violations?

 

1,500,000

 

200,000

 

50,000

 

5,000

2 points

Question 12 

  1. In the context of substance use, ________ is defined as      a procedure in which a behavioral event is followed by a consequent event      such that the behavior is then more likely to be repeated.

 

tolerance

 

reinforcement

 

antecedence

 

idealization

2 points

Question 13 

  1. When using a substance makes normal activities such as      driving result in harmful accidents, this is called:

 

behavioral tolerance.

 

drug misuse.

 

behavioral toxicity.

 

laissez-faire.

2 points

Question 14 

  1. DAWN data provides all of the following except:

 

information about which drugs are   associated with the greatest number of ER visits.

 

clear measures of the toxicity of   individual drugs.

 

data regarding problems associated   with alcohol-in-combination.

 

general information about trends   in drug-related ER visits.

2 points

Question 15 

  1. In an annual study done by the U.S. Justice Department,      people arrested for various crimes are administered urine tests to detect      the presence of drugs. In 2013, about ________ percent of the adult male      arrestees tested positive for at least one illicit drug.

 

100

 

between 60 and 80

 

0

 

between 10 and 30

2 points

Question 16 

  1. The DSM-5 does not define addiction as such, but it has      diagnostic criteria for:

 

habituation.

 

substance use disorders.

 

chronic intoxication.

 

drug-associated bipolar disorder.
2 points

Question 17 

  1. Which of the following is an example of chronic      physiological toxicity?

 

High blood pressure from smoking

 

A motivational syndrome

 

Paranoia from methamphetamine use

 

Respiratory arrest from an alcohol   overdose

2 points

Question 18 

  1. In the context of substance use, which of the following      is the significance of the animal research that led to the positive      reinforcement model?

 

It indicates that prescription   drugs are important contributors to overall drug toxicity figures.

 

It implies that psychological   dependence is more important than physical dependence in explaining repeated   drug use.

 

It points out the scientific value   of the concept of reinforcement for understanding physical dependence.

 

It proves that using one of the   gateway substances causes one to escalate to more deviant forms of drug use.

2 points

Question 19 

  1. The Drug Abuse Warning Network:

 

is a system of free public-service   announcements.

 

is a voluntary organization for   teachers and police officers.

 

monitors drug-related medical   emergencies.

 

monitors arrest rates for various   drug-law violations.

2 points

Question 20 

  1. In 2008 it was reported that the incidence of new HIV      infections associated with intravenous drug use had declined by 80 percent      in the past 20 years. According to the text, which of these factors led to      this decrease?

 

Syringe exchange programs

 

Sexual abstinence education

 

Increased Narcotics Anonymous   attendance

 

Decreased use of hormonal   contraceptives

2 points

Question 21 

  1. The Harrison Act of 1914:

 

required pharmacists and   physicians to register and pay a tax to dispense certain drugs.

 

made it a crime to prescribe   heroin to dependent users.

 

regulated all over-the-counter   medicines.

 

regulated peyote and marijuana.

2 points

Question 22 

  1. Which of the following terms is defined as chemicals      that are close relatives of controlled substances but not themselves      listed on one of the controlled substance schedules?

 

Designer drugs

 

Experimental drugs

 

Investigational new drugs

 

Research chemicals

2 points

Question 23 

  1. According to the text, which of the following most      accurately describes the recent drug laws in Portugal?

 

Possession for personal use of all   drugs is decriminalized.

 

Possession for personal use of all   drugs will receive stiffer penalties.

 

Possession for personal use of   marijuana is decriminalized.

 

Possession for personal use of   marijuana will receive stiffer penalties.

2 points

Question 24 

  1. In the early 1800s, ________ was the medical doctor’s      most reliable and effective medicine that was used for a variety of      conditions, but mainly for pain relief.

 

alcohol

 

marijuana

 

barbiturate

 

opium

2 points

Question 25 

  1. Substances with high abuse potential and no currently      accepted medical use are listed in:

 

the DAWN report.

 

Schedule I.

 

Schedule III.

 

precursors.

2 points

Question 26 

  1. Which of the following acts provided the rootstock on      which all the modern U.S. laws regulating pharmaceuticals have been      grafted?

 

The Comprehensive Drug Abuse   Prevention and Control Act

 

The Food and Drug Administration   Safety and Innovation Act

 

The Federal Food, Drug, and   Cosmetic Act

 

The Pure Food and Drugs Act

2 points

Question 27 

  1. Before a new drug is released to the market, the FDA      requires:

 

a pricing comparison with   competing drugs.

 

proof that no adverse reactions   will occur.

 

three phases of clinical testing,   with each phase involving more people.

 

personal testimony from patients   who have tried the drug.
2 points

Question 28 

  1. It is estimated that ________ percent of the illegal      drug supply is seized by federal agencies each year.

 

1-2

 

10-15

 

35-40

 

more than 50

2 points

Question 29 

  1. In the context of marketing a new drug, which of the      following is the significance of the 1997 Food and Drug Administration      (FDA) Modernization Act?

 

It required advertisements for   prescription drugs (mostly in medical journals) to contain a summary of   information about adverse reactions to the drug.

 

It included the requirement that   companies seek approval of any testing to be done with humans before clinical   trials are conducted.

 

It included the guidelines for   annual postmarketing reporting by the companies of adverse reactions to some   medications.

 

It tightened the procedures   whereby drug company salespeople could provide free samples to physicians.

2 points

Question 30 

  1. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that it is legal to      use urine tests to screen students in public high schools for drug use:

 

only if there is evidence that the   individual student has used drugs.

 

only with the parents’ permission.

 

only after the student has been in   a treatment program.

 

if they are involved in   extracurricular activities.

2 points

Question 31 

  1. Weight control, aggression, impulsivity, and      psychological depression have all been associated with:

 

serotonin pathways.

 

endorphins.

 

GABA receptors.

 

the parasympathetic branch.

2 points

Question 32 

  1. Parkinson’s disease produces tremors and muscular      rigidity because of damage to:

 

acetylcholine neurons in the   parasympathetic branch.

 

dopamine neurons in the   nigrostriatal pathway.

 

norepinephrine neurons in the   locus ceruleus.

 

the blood-brain barrier.

2 points

Question 33 

  1. Parasympathetic and sympathetic refer to the two      branches of the:

 

glia.

 

axon.

 

autonomic nervous system.

 

limbic system.

2 points

Question 34 

  1. Drugs can affect neurotransmitter systems in two main      ways: either by altering the availability of the neurotransmitter in the      synapse, or by:

 

acting on the blood-brain barrier.

 

altering hormone levels.

 

acting directly on the receptors.

 

increasing blood pressure.

2 points

Question 35 

  1. Which of the following regions is located in the      medulla oblongata in the brain and is important for triggering nausea and      vomiting?

 

The area postrema

 

The choroid plexus

 

The posterolateral sulcus

 

The tuberculum cinereum

2 points

Question 36 

  1. The neurotransmitter at the end organ of the      sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is ________.

 

serotonin

 

dopamine

 

norepinephrine

 

GABA

2 points

Question 37 

  1. Which of the following terms is defined as the      maintenance of an environment of body functions within a certain range      (e.g., temperature, blood pressure)?

 

Apoptosis

 

Homeorhesis

 

Homeostasis

 

Osmosis

2 points

Question 38 

  1. Whether the effect of a neurotransmitter is excitatory      or inhibitory depends on:

 

blood sugar level.

 

the type of receptor.

 

the rate of synthesis.

 

enzyme actions.

2 points

Question 39 

  1. Neurotransmitter molecules are released into the small      space between two neurons called the ________.

 

transporter

 

synapse

 

partition

 

vesicle

2 points

Question 40 

  1. The ________ is an important link between the brain and      the pituitary gland and is involved in feeding, drinking, temperature      regulation, and sexual behavior.

 

cerebral cortex

 

cerebellum

 

limbic system

 

hypothalamus

2 points

Question 41 

  1. If repeated exposure to a drug increases the activity      of the CYP450 enzyme that is responsible for metabolizing that drug, then      later doses will be less effective than the first few doses. This is an example      of:

 

drug disposition tolerance.

 

behavioral tolerance.

 

an active metabolite.

 

a prodrug.

2 points

Question 42 

  1. When neither the person taking the drug nor the person      evaluating the effects of the drug knows which people are getting the      experimental drug and which people are getting the placebo, this procedure      is referred to as a(n) ________.

 

design flaw

 

effect size

 

preclinical study

 

double-blind procedure

2 points

Question 43 

  1. With increasing doses of any useful drug, there is      usually an increase in the number and severity of:

 

side effects.

 

beneficial effects.

 

placebo effects.

 

effects on the stomach.

2 points

Question 44 

  1. The potency of a drug is defined in terms of:

 

the magnitude of the effect it   produces.

 

its dependence potential.

 

whether it has a detectable odor.

 

the amount required to produce an   effect.

2 points

Question 45 

  1. The effects of a drug that depend on the presence of a      chemical at certain concentrations in a target tissue are called ________.

 

placebo effects

 

observer effects

 

specific effects

 

nocebo effects

2 points

Question 46 

  1. Regardless of the route of administration, psychoactive      drugs reach the brain tissue by way of the ________.

 

meninges

 

spinal cord

 

bloodstream

 

liver

2 points

Question 47 

  1. The blood-brain barrier:

 

is fully developed in humans when   they are born.

 

is designed to allow all drug   compounds into the brain.

 

cannot be penetrated, even with   trauma to the brain.

 

prevents many drugs from entering   the brain.

2 points

Question 48 

  1. After oral administration, most absorption of the drug      molecules takes place in the:

 

small intestine.

 

kidneys.

 

heart.

 

lower bowel.

2 points

Question 49 

  1. ________ are a group of analgesic (painkilling) drugs      that produce a relaxed, dreamlike state; moderately high doses often      induce sleep.

 

Hallucinogens

 

Opioids

 

Antipsychotics

 

Antidepressants

2 points

Question 50 

  1. Richard is a researcher in a pharmaceutical company.      His company develops a new drug to treat chronic joint pain in humans. He      wants to check the effect of this drug on a group of elderly people. He      divides the group into an experimental group and a control group. He gives      the new drug to the experimental group, while he gives a noneffective      look-alike drug to the control group. Both groups give the same result.      Identify the effect felt by the control group, despite not taking the      drug.

 

Specific effect

 

Observer effect

 

Nocebo effect

 

Placebo effect