What Is The Accepted Name Of The Condition With Which The Child Will Be Born? What Are The Peri-Natal Risks To The Infant?

What is the accepted name of the condition with which the child will be born? What are the peri-natal risks to the infant? What are the post-natal risks to the infant? What are the post-natal risks to the mother?

 Maternal opiate use is associated with an increased risk of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), whereby opiate exposure in utero triggers a postnatal withdrawal syndrome (Forray, 2016). Anywhere from 45 to 94% of infants exposed to opioids in utero, including methadone and buprenorphine, can be affected by NAS (Forray, 2016).  NAS results in substantial neonatal morbidity and increased healthcare utilization  and consists of an array of signs and symptoms, including irritability, feeding difficulties, tremors, hypertonia, emesis, loose stools, seizures, and respiratory distress (Forray, 2016). Opioid use in pregnancy is correlated with a greater risk of low birthweight, respiratory problems, third trimester bleeding, toxemia and mortality (Forray, 2016).  Opioid exposure in pregnancy has also been associated with postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, neurobehavioral problems, and sudden infant death syndrome (Forray, 2016).  Women with substance use disorders also frequently experience inadequate prenatal care, poor nutrition, chronic medical problems, poverty, and domestic violence (Forray, 2016).   Furthermore, substance use in pregnancy may also result in an early dysfunctional maternal-infant relationship that can potentiate the negative effects of prenatal drug exposure (Forray, 2016).   Another undesirable consequences of prenatal substance use are confounded by the frequency of coexisting substance use and comorbid psychiatric illness (Forray, 2016).  Furthermore, substance use in pregnancy may also result in an early dysfunctional maternal-infant relationship that can potentiate the negative effects of prenatal drug exposure (Forray, 2016). 

References

Forray A. (2016). Substance use during pregnancy. F1000Research, 5, F1000 Faculty Rev-887. doi:10.12688/f1000research.7645.1