Nephrolithiasis is the growth of a kidney stone in the kidney or the lower urinary tract. There are four different stones that can form during this disease. The first is calcium salts (75%-85%). These types of stones are predominantly in patients with a high salt diet, animal fat, animal protein, and oxalate from green leafy vegetables. A low calcium diet is a risk factor also which leads to oxaluria. The second stone is struvite (10%-20%) and predominantly found in women. They occur when the urine is alkaline (pH greater than 7.0) and a urea-splitting organism such as Proteusor Klebsiellais present (Dunphy, Wineland-Brown, Porter, & Thomas, 2015). Uric acid (7%) are formed when there is increase in uric acid such as the disease gout. It may also result from acidic urinary pH, significant bicarbonate loss, regional enteritis, hereditary factors, or ulcerative colitis. Lastly, cystine (1%-2%) which are created from autosomal recessive disorder called cystinuria. These may form in the kidney, bladder, and ureters. It rarely causes kidney failure. Diet considerations from certain cultures eating lifestyle may increase or decrease the risk for Nephrolithiasis. Vegetarianism has been shown to protect against calcium stone formation in some studies; However, excessive oxalate intake from green, leafy vegetables can cause stones in patients with hyperoxaluria (Wells, 2000). Excessive protein probably contributes to stone formation in 2 ways: by excess purines possibly leading to uric acid stones and by the observed hypercalciuric effect that develops from protein loads; a global reduction of protein, particularly animal protein, is typically recommended, with the daily protein intake suggested at 60 g/day (Wells, 2000). Other considerations such as lack of fluid and obesity can also be factors.
Dunphy, L., Brown, J., Porter, B., & Thomas, D. (2015). Primary Care: The Art and Science of Advanced
Practice Nursing. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company
Wells, Ka. (2000). Nephrolithiasis with unusual initial symptoms. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological
Therapeutics, 23(3). Retrieved from https://6o306a7b1-mp01-y-https-web-b-ebscohost-com.prx-
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