Nursing is a field filled with numerous policies and procedures. To understand these policies and procedures, the practice of research and knowledge acquisition is essential.

       Nursing is a field filled with numerous  policies and procedures.  To understand these policies and procedures,  the practice of research and knowledge acquisition is essential.  The  method of incorporating proper research into daily practice is called  evidence-based practice (Polit & Beck, 2017).  The goal of using  evidence-based practice is to move away from traditions and ritual by  incorporating tested research evidence that supports clinical practices  (Polit & Beck, 2017).

Summary of Article Search

            Based on the  evidence hierarchy by Polit & Beck (2017), and the levels of  evidence presented in class I was able to evaluate research articles  (Walden University, 2018).  When looking for specific research for my  topic, I searched for the highest level of evidence.  There are three  types of research which are: primary, synthesized or secondary, and  others such as expert opinions or practice questions (Polit & Beck,  2017). 

            My PICOT  question is: In patients with acute pain in the emergency department,  what is the effect of Ketamine use for the reduction of pain compared to  opioid medications during their ED visit? To begin the search, I used  the keywords Ketamine, analgesia, sedation and emergency medicine.   Using these words, I was able to find 408 results.  I further limited my  search to ten years which yielded 297 results.  Finally, I used  systematic reviews, meta-analysis and randomized control trials (RCTs)  for my final search narrowing the articles to 111.  Upon examination of  the articles, I found the articles based on systematic reviews,  meta-analysis and RCTs provided detailed research including abstracts,  methods of trials, results, discussion, limitations, and conclusion.   Each of these sections specifies the purpose of the study in detail. 

          Using this framework for literature review  ensures relevant research is used to answer evidence seeking questions.   Davies (2011) comments, “detailed knowledge of the frameworks enables  the searcher to refine strategies to suit each particular situation  rather than trying to fit a search situation to a framework” (p. 79).   By using a timeframe such as the past ten years, it is easier to see the  relevance of the information to clinical practice today.  An active  literature search will yield the most appropriate information for the  question being posed.


Davies, K. S. (2011). Formulating the evidence-based practice question: a review of the frameworks. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice6(2), 75-80. Retrieved from

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2017). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

Walden University Library. (2018). Levels of evidence. Retrieved from