Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. [Image]. Used with permission of MedMaps.

Discussion 1: Maladaptive Responses to Immune Disorders

Maladaptive responses to disorders are compensatory mechanisms that ultimately have adverse health effects for patients. For instance, a patient’s allergic reaction to peanuts might lead to anaphylactic shock, or a patient struggling with depression might develop a substance abuse problem. To properly diagnose and treat patients, advanced practice nurses must understand both the pathophysiology of disorders and potential maladaptive responses that some disorders cause.

Consider immune disorders such as HIV, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and systemic lupus E. What are resulting maladaptive responses for patients with these disorders?

                                                             To Prepare

• Review Chapter 6 and Chapter 8 in the Huether and McCance text. Reflect on the concept of maladaptive responses to disorders.

• Select two of the following immune disorders: HIV, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, or systemic lupus E (SLE).

• Identify the pathophysiology of each disorder you selected. Consider the compensatory mechanisms that the disorders trigger. 

Then compare the resulting maladaptive and physiological responses of the two disorders.

• Select one of the following factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factor might impact your selected immune disorders.

Post a brief description of the pathophysiology of your selected immune disorders. 

Explain how the maladaptive and physiological responses of the two disorders differ. 

Finally, explain how the factor you selected might impact the pathophysiology of each disorder.

                                                          Required Readings

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

• Chapter 6, “Innate Immunity: Inflammation and Wound Healing”

This chapter examines how the body responds to injury and infection by exploring the first, second, and third lines of defense. It also covers wound healing and alterations of the wound healing process.

• Chapter 7, “Adaptive Immunity”

This chapter examines the third line of defense, adaptive immunity. It also covers the roles of antigens and immunogens, the humoral immune response, cell-mediated immunity, and the production of B and T lymphocytes in the immune response.

• Chapter 8, “Infection and Defects in Mechanism of Defense”

This chapter covers the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and treatment of disorders resulting from infection, deficiencies in immunity, and hypersensitivity. It also examines the pathophysiology of an important immune disorder—HIV/AIDS.

• Chapter 9, “Stress and Disease”

This chapter evaluates the impact of stress on various body systems and the immune system. It also examines coping mechanisms and disorders related to stress.

• Chapter 10, “Biology of Cancer”

This chapter explores the developmental process of cancer and factors that impact the onset of cancer at the cellular level. It also describes various treatment options.

• Chapter 11, “Cancer Epidemiology”

This chapter reviews genetic, environmental, behavioral, and diet-related risk factors for cancer. It also examines types of cancers that result from risk factors.

• Chapter 12, “Cancer in Children and Adolescents” 

This chapter focuses on the presentation and prognosis of childhood cancers. It examines the impact of genetic and environmental factors on these cancers.

• Chapter 38, “Structure and Function of the Musculoskeletal System”

This chapter covers the structure and function of bones, joints, and skeletal muscle. It also explores effects of aging on the musculoskeletal system.

• Chapter 39, “Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function”

This chapter examines the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and evaluation and treatment of bone, joints, and skeletal muscle disorders. Additionally, it explores musculoskeletal tumors, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.

• Chapter 40, “Alterations of Musculoskeletal Function in Children”

This chapter includes musculoskeletal disorders that affect children, such as congenital defects, bone infection, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, muscular dystrophy, musculoskeletal tumors, and nonaccidental trauma.

• Chapter 41, “Structure, Function, and Disorders of the Integument”

This chapter begins with an overview of the structure and function of skin. It then covers effects of aging on skin, as well as disorders of the skin, hair, and nails.

• Chapter 42, “Alterations of Integument in Children”

This chapter covers alterations of the integument that affect children. These include acne vulgaris, dermatitis, infections of the skin, insect bites and parasites, vascular disorders, and other skin disorders.

Hammer, G. D., & McPhee, S. J. (2019). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

• Chapter 3, “Disorders of the Immune System”

This chapter explores the anatomy and physiology of the immune system. It also explores the pathophysiology of various immune disorders such as primary immunodeficiency diseases and AIDS.

• Chapter 8, “Diseases of the Skin”

This chapter begins with an overview of the anatomy and physiology of skin. It also explores the pathophysiology of various types of skin lesions and inflammatory skin diseases.

• Chapter 24, “Inflammatory Rheumatic Disease”

This chapter explores the pathogenesis of inflammation and its role in rheumatic diseases. It also examines the clinical presentation, etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations of rheumatic diseases such as gout and rheumatoid arthritis.

Required Media

Zimbron, J.  (2008). Mind maps—Dementia, endocarditis, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) [PDF]. Retrieved from http://www.medmaps.co.uk/beta/

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. [Image]. Used with permission of MedMaps.

This media provides examples of mind maps for dementia, endocarditis, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD).

Optional Resources

Arthritis Foundation. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.arthritis.org/ 

Lupus Foundation of America. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.lupus.org/newsite/index.html