Hallucinogen related Disorders.
According to DSM-5, hallucinogens are psychoactive drugs either synthetic or plant-based products. They cause auditory and or visual hallucinations, as well as changes in mood and perceptions (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Some common hallucinogens are LSD, magic mushrooms, DMT, N-bomb, Molly, ecstasy, and MDMA (Close and Thomas, 2021).
The diagnostic criteria for hallucinogen disorders according to DSM 5 Are :
- Recent use of hallucinogen
- Dilated pupils
- Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in urine.
There are no medical treatments currents approved by FDA, but there are some management approaches to help those in this situation which are acute adverse reaction and chronic adverse reaction. In such cases intoxication dissolves with time, supportive talk down therapy helps the individual not to harm themselves. Other interventions are
– Group therapy
-Cognitive Behavioral therapy (CBT)
-Dialectal Behavioral Therapy (DBT)
-Interpersonal Therapy (IPT)
Under chronic adverse reaction intensive outpatient programs (IOP), support groups like Alcoholics Anonymous (AA).
Recommendations for clients to help determine they are not progressing.
According to Prochaska and Diclemente model, there are 6 stages to recovery which are Precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, relapse or termination ( Castillo et al, 2020). Clients need to know the cycle so they can keep track and understand what stage they are in, so they know if there is progress or not. They should also be educated that each individual is different, and they should focus on their healing process rather than competing with any other individual especially during group therapy sessions.