What is Philosophy?


Demonstrate knowledge on:

What is Philosophy?

The noun philosophy means the study of proper behavior, and the search for wisdom. The original meaning of the word philosophy comes from the Greek roots philo-meaning “love” and -sophos, or “wisdom.” … In other words, they want to know the meaning of life.

Watch Video: What is Philosophy  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nRG-rV8hhpU

What is Ethics?

Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. … Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime.

‎View Video: What is Ethics  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3_t4obUc51A

4,200 religions

According to some estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions in the world. The word religion is sometimes used interchangeably with “faith” or “belief system”, but religion differs from private belief in that it has a public aspect.


List of Religions and Spiritual Traditions –

https://en.wikipedia.org › wiki › List_of_religions_and_spiritual_traditions

Forms of Religious Belief  : Monotheism, Atheism, Polytheism, Agnostic

A. Monotheism The term monotheism comes from the Greek monos, (one) and theos (god). Thus, monotheism is the belief in the existence of a single god.

B. Polytheism which is a belief in many gods

C. Atheism     An atheist doesn’t believe in a god or divine being. …

D. Agnostic    an agnostic neither believes nor disbelieves in a god or religious doctrine. Agnostics assert that it’s impossible for human beings to know anything about how the universe was created and if divine beings exist. They are open to the possibility of a divine being an atheist is not open to such a possibility.


Two Types of Religions/Historical and Mythological Religions

 Mythological Religion     Mythology is the main component of Religion. It refers to systems of legends and stories and concepts that are of high importance to a certain community, making statements concerning the supernatural or sacred. Religion is the broader term, besides mythological system, it includes ritual. A given mythology is almost always associated with a certain religion such as Greek mythology with Ancient Greek religion. Disconnected from its religious system, a myth may lose its immediate relevance to the community and evolve—away from sacred importance—into a legend or folktale.

Historical Religions can be traced back in history to actual people, places and events which are documented in history and archeology. Information about the teachings and life situation of Jesus, Mohammed, Moses, The Jewish Prophets can be found in historical records.

Religious Theory Philosophy( Ethics based on a Religious teaching) Religious philosophy is philosophical thinking that is inspired and directed by a particular religion. It can be done objectively, but may also be done as a persuasion tool by believers in that faith.It guides a personson’s action and choices based on religious teachings.

A. Mythology and legends as the basis of truth in the ancient world (watch the video The Gallery of the Gods)

Zeus: the King of the Greek Gods

Hera: the Queen of the Greek Gods married to Zeus

Predestination:  Ancient Greek religion taught that human lives were at the mercy of fate which is determined        by the Gods) People were subject to their destiny with no chance to change their lives

Socrates (the Father of Classical Philosophy )

At the time of Sacrates, Ehics were based upon Greek Mythology Religion

A. The great question of Socrates?  Can I know GOOD apart from GOD/RELIGION

B. The Great Statement of Socrates : The Unexamined Life is not Worth Living

THis semester we will be analyzing Ethical Questions from two opposing philosophical positions

A. Judeo-Christian Tradition

Teaches that there is an Objective Truth revealed by God to human beings on how to live a good life. It is contained in the teachings of the Old and New Testament)

B. Secular Humanism

everything is subjective it teaches that there No God and that human beings have no spiritual nature. They are just a physical body. Human beings create their own ideas of right and wrong subject to their own will. Human beings become their own God.)

What is Revelation

The word “revelation” comes from the word “reveal.” Revelation is “something that is revealed.” Biblically, the word “revelation” refers to something revealed by a spiritual source, which may be God, the Lord Jesus Christ. The “book of Revelation” is so called because its contents were revealed by God to Jesus, who revealed it to an angel, who revealed it to the Apostle John (Rev. 1:1). For Christians it is the teachings in the Old and New Testaments . For Jews it teachings in the Old testament

What is the Covenant in Judaeo Christian Tradition?

Covenant. Literally, a contract. In the Bible (see also Bible), an agreement between God and his people, in which God makes promises to his people and, usually, requires certain conduct from them. In the Old Testament, God made agreements with Noah, Abraham, and Moses.

What are the Ten Commandments

Also known as the  Decalogue , the Ten Commandments come from the Old Testament of the Bible, where they are revealed to Moses on Mt. Sinai and carved into two stone tablets. The commandments are mentioned as laws in Exodus 24:12-13 and named as the Ten Commandments in Exodus 34:28. The phrase appears in English as early as 1280. The seminal 1611 King James Version of the Bible renders the commandments in the now familiar and widely quoted Thou shalt not formula and are summarized as follows:

1. Thou shalt have no other gods before me. 2. Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image. 3. Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain. 4. Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. 5. Honour thy father and thy mother 6. Thou shalt not kill. 7. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 8. Thou shalt not steal. 9. Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour. 10. Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor’s house (wife, servants, and animals).

Forming the basis of Judeo-Christian morality and ethics, theTen Commandments are widely taught, memorized, cited, and displayed by Jews and Christians, referenced in everything from Sunday School to bumper stickers.

Judeo-Christian( definition) In this philosophy GOD is GOD and reveals right and wrong action in His Commandments  it is a term that groups Judaism and Christianity, either in reference to Christianity’s derivation from Judaism, both religions’ common use of the Bible, or due to perceived parallels or commonalities shared values between those two religions, which has become part of the development of laws and civilization of Western culture in Europe and the Americas

The term became prevalent towards the middle of the 20th century in the United States to link broader principles of Judeo-Christian ethics such as the dignity of human life, adherence to the Abrahamic covenant, common decency, and support of traditional family values.[1]

The concept of “Judeo-Christian values” in an ethical (rather than theological or liturgical) sense was used by George Orwell in 1939, with the phrase “the Judaeo-Christian scheme of morals.”[2] It has become part of the American civil religion since the 1940s.

Secular Humanism (definition) In this form of philosophy MAN IS HIS OWN GOD

Secular humanism, or simply humanism, is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason, ethics, and philosophical naturalism while specifically rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism, pseudoscience, and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making.

Belief in Deity Not considered important. Most Humanists are atheists or agnostics.  •Incarnations Same as above.  •Origin of Universe and Life

The scientific method is most respected as the means for revealing the mysteries of the origins of the universe and life.  •After Death An afterlife or spiritual existence after death is not recognized.  •Why Evil? No concept of “evil.” Reasons for wrongdoing are explored through scientific methods, e.g. through study of sociology, psychology, criminology.  •Salvation No concept of afterlife or spiritual liberation or salvation. Realizing ones personal potential and working for the betterment of humanity through ethical consciousness and social works are considered paramount, but from a naturalistic rather than supernatural standpoint.  •Undeserved Suffering No spiritual reasons but rather a matter of human vulnerability to misfortune, illness, and victimization.  •Contemporary Issues The American Humanist Association endorses elective abortion. Other contemporary views include working for equality for homosexuals, gender equality, a secular approach to divorce and remarriage, working to end poverty, promoting peace and nonviolence, and environmental protection.



Introductory Philosophical Terms and Concepts in Ethics

Philosophy    The study of the Love of Wisdom from the past used in the present

Ethics  the study of morality what is considered “good” and “bad” right and wrong human conduct and behavior

Moral what is considered  good or right. Should be characterized by pleasure, happiness and harmony in one’s life

Immoral what is considered bad or wrong characterized by unhappiness and disharmony in one’s life

Amoral A person having no moral sense or being indifferent to right and wrong actions. Survival of self the only value. Sometimes the result of physical/psychological imbalance in the brain.

Nonmoral  usually involves objects and their use. Involves objects and how they are used to give them a moral quality

For example, A Gun or Knife if used to hunt food for family it is a GOOD, if used to kill neighbor in an argument it is BAD

Four Aspects of Morality

Religious Morality concerned with human beings in relationship to a supernatural being

Morality and Nature human beings in relationship and respectful of the natural world of God’s creation

Individual Morality human beings in relation to themselves, self respect important value

Social Morality human beings in relation to other human beings, a social consciousness is a value

Morality is Objective moral laws are revealed by a divine being to human beings thus must be followed as written

Morality is Subjective human beings create their own moral laws

Customary/Traditional Morality moral laws are based on inherited custom and tradition often accepted without thought or reflection. A person is born into a religion in one’s family and identifies with it even though they may not practice the religion.

Reflective Morality critical evaluation of all moral issues whether or not they are based on religion, custom or tradition

Morality and the Law what is legal may not always be moral. Legal means I may do something without fear of punishment. Moral asks the question: Should I do this action??

Morality and Religion/The Question of Truth human beings believe that their religion teaches them the truth about right and wrong actions and choices.

Revelation God reveals his will for good and bad in the Old and New Testament  Example: Ten Commandments

Covenant  A Free Will agreement between God and and the individual person to accept Revelation(the teachings in the Bible) as a rule for life’s ethical choices

YouTube Videos







YouTube Videos 2






Discussion Board #1 Secular Humanism vs Judeo Christian Tradition

Part I What did you learn from Week I ideas on development of Philosophy material? ( at least one full paragraph)

Part II Today we will also be reflecting on different Ethical Philosophy and Ethical Language Definitions

For this Discussion Board question, I would like for you to reflect upon the different philosophies called

Secular Humanism and Judeo Christian Tradition as discussed in the material for Module One November 2, 2021

Watch the videos and examine carefully their definitions.Compare both of them and what they teach as moral.

What is your reaction to these different ways of looking at the world?